Jugoslávia (Jugoslavija)

 

 

Europa Mediterrânica e Balcânica

Jugoslávia

1 Dec 1918                Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes

 3 Oct 1929                Kingdom of Yugoslavia

17 Apr 1941                state dissolved under Italian-German occupation

 4 Dec 1943                state reconstituted as Democratic Federative Yugoslavia while

                           negotiations with royal government in exile continued

 5 Mar 1945                accord with royal government

 2 Dec 1945                Federative People's Republic of Yugoslavia

 7 Apr 1963                Socialist Federative Republic of Yugoslavia

27 Apr 1992                Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro only)

23 Jul 1997 -  7 Oct 2000  Slobodan Milosevic                 (b. 1941)

 7 Oct 2000 -              Vojislav Kostunica                 (b. 1944)

ministers

14 Jul 1992 -  9 Feb 1993  Milan Panic                        (b. 1929)

 9 Feb 1993 - 19 May 1998  Radoje Kontic                      (b. 1937)

19 May 1998 -  4 Nov 2000  Momir Bulatovic                    (b. 1956)

 4 Nov 2000 - 24 Jul 2001  Zoran Zizic                        (b. 1951)

24 Jul 2001 -              Dragisa Pesic                      (b. 1954)

Savezna Republika Jugoslavija (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia)

The province Kosovo of the Yugoslav republic of Serbia is under United Nations interim administration.

Executive:

Federal President: Vojislav Koštunica (2000) DOS-DSS

Federal Prime minister: Dragisa Pesic (2001) SNP

The federal president is elected for a four year term by the people. The federal government was formed by DOS, SNP and Serbian People's Party of Montenegro.

President: % 

 

 

24 september 2000 

 

Vojislav Koštunica

Demokratska Stranka Srbije

50.2 

Slobodan Miloševic

Socialisticka Partija Srbije

37.2 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vojislav KOSTUNICA

2,470,304  

50.2

 

Slobodan Milosevic    

1,826,799  

37.1

 

Tomislav Nikolic                     

289,013  

05.9

 

Vojislav Mihajlovic                  

145,019  

02.9

 

Miroljub Vidojkovic                

45,964  

00.9

 

 

 

Vece Gradana (Conselho dos Cidadãos)

24 september 2000

(108 membros eleitos pelos sérvios e 30 pelo Montenegro)

138

 

Demokratska Opozicija Srbije

DOS  Oposição Democrática da Sérvia Democratic Opposition of Serbia  1,437,856  67.0    178

Others                             113,927  05.3      -

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                                 2,145,510          250

 

58

43.9 

 

Christian-Democratic Party of Serbia (DHSS)           7

4

 

 

Demokratska stranka

Partido Democrático (centrista)

46

 

Demokratska Stranka Srbije

 

Partido Democrático da Sérvia (nacionalista moderado)

45

 

Gradanski Savez Srbije

 

Aliança Cívica da Sérvia (liberal)

9

 

Demokratski Centar

 

Centro Democrático

 

 

Demokratska alternativa

Alternativa Democrática

6

 

Nova Demokratija

Nova Democracia

9

 

Demohrišcanska stranka Srbije

Partido Cristão Democrático da Sérvia

 

Socijaldemokratska Unija

União Social Democrata

4

 

Liga socijaldemokrata Vojvodine

Liga Social Democrata da Vojvodina

6

 

- Savez vojvodanskih Madara (see below)

 

 

 

 

Reformska Demokratska Stranka Vojvodine

Partido da Reforma Democrática da Vojvodina

4

 

Socijaldemokratija

Social Democracia

9

 

Koalicija Vojvodina

Coligação Vojvodina

4

 

Pokret za demokratsku Srbiju

Movimento para uma Sérvia Democrática

5

 

Nova Srbija

Nova Sérvia

8

 

Asocijacija slobodnih i nezavisnih sindikata (Association of Free and Democratic Trade Unions)

 

 

 

- DZVM DZVM (a Vojvodina Hungarian party

 

 

6

 

Others                                                5

- Liga za Sumadiju-Koalicija Sumadija (League for Sumadia-Sumadia Coalition)

 

 

 

 

- SPOT

 

Serbian Unity Party                119,606  05.6     14

 

 

 

- Partija Demokratske Akcije (Party of Democratic Action, muslim)

 

 

 

SPS/JUL

- Socialisticka Partija Srbije (Serb Socialist Party, authoritarian)

- Jugoslovenska Ujedinjena Levica (Jugoslav United Left, communist) 

Socialist Party of Serbia          294,376  13.7     36

SPS

JUL  32.9  44 

 

 

Srpska Radikalna Stranka (Serb Radical Party, xenophobic) 

SRS  8.7  5 Serbian Radical Party              179,745  08.4     22

 

 

 

Socijalisticka narodna partija Crne Gore (Socialist People's Party of Montenegro) 

 

SNP  2.2  28 

 

 

Srpski Pokret Obnove (Serb Renewal Movement, moderate nationalist)  - 

 

SPO  2.2 

 

 

Srpska Narodna Partija Crne Gore (Serbian People's Party of Montenegro) 

 

SNSCG  .  2 

 

 

Vajdasági Magyar Szövetsége/Savez Vojvodjanskih Madara (Vojvodina's Hungarian's Union, minority) 

VMSz  .  1 

 

 

 

Superf. 102 milliers de km2

Pop. 11 millions

Esp. vie 72 ans

Budg. déf. 479 millions de dollars (2001)

Armée 105 500 actifs et 400 000 réservistes

JUGOSLÁVIA

Leaders of SPS 

Presidents

Slobodan Milosevic  1990-1991 [picture]

Borisav Jovic       1991-1992 [picture]

Slobodan Milosevic  1992-     [picture]

 Zivadin Jovanovic   2001     [picture] (acting for Milosevic)

 Mirko Marjanovic    2001-    [picture] (acting for Milosevic)

General Secretaries

Petar Skundric      1990-1991

Milomir Minic       1991-1996 [picture]

Gorica Gajevic      1996-2000 [picture]

Zoran Andjelkovic   2000-     [picture]

 

SPS was founded on 16 July 1990 from the merger of the ruling League of Communists of Serbia (SKS) and the minor Socialist Union of Working People's of Serbia.

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 President of SRS 

Vojislav Seselj   1991-      [picture]

 

SRS was founded on 23 Feb 1991, preceeded by the Serbian Cetnik's Movement created on 18 Jul 1990 and also headed also by Vojislav Seselj.

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 President of SPO 

Vuk Draskovic     1990-      [picture]

 

SPO was founded on 14 Mar 1990 as the merger of the Serbian Freedom Movement (founded on 6 Jan 1990) and the Serbian National Renewal.

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 President of the Directory of JUL 

Mirjana Markovic  1995-      [picture]

 

JUL was founded on 23 Jul 1994.

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 President of DS 

Ljubomir Davidovic   1919-1940 (+)

Milan Grol           1940-1945 (+1952)

Dragoljub Micunovic  1990-1994         [picture]

Zoran Djindjic       1994-             [picture] 

 

DS was first founded in 1919 and banned in 1945. Established again on 11 Dec 1989 and constitued on 3 Feb 1990.

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 President of DSS 

Vojislav Kostunica   1992-      [picture]

 

DS was founded by splinters of DS on 26 Jul 1992.

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Presidents of SSJ

Zeljko Raznatovic, Arkan 1993-2000 (+)a [picture]

Borislav Pelevic         2000-

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 President of VMSZ/SVM 

Jo?ef Kasa   1993-      [picture]

 

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 President of ND-PS 

Dusan Mihajlovic     1990-2001 [picture]

Miroslav Stefanovic  2001-     [picture] (acting)

 

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 Presidents of GSS 

Vesna Pesic       1993-1999 [picture]

Goran Svilanovic  1999-     [picture]

 

GSS was registered in 1992 in the merger of the Republican Club and the Reform Party (successor party to Ante Markovic's Union of Reform Forces of Yugoslavia).

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 President of DA 

Nebojsa Covic     1997-     [picture]

 

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 President of LSV 

Nenad Canak       1990-     [picture]

 

LSV was founded on 14 Jul 1990.

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 President of PDS 

Momcilo Perisic      1998-  [picture]

Slobodan Vuksanovic  2001   [picture] (acting for Perisic)

 

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President of KV 

Dragan Veselinov  1997-     [picture]

 

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 President of DHSS 

Vladan Batic      1997-     [picture]

 

DHSS was founded on 6 May 1997.

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 President of RDSV 

Miodrag-Mile Isakov   199?-     [picture]

 

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 Co-presidents of NS

Velimir-Velja Ilic +            [picture] 

Milan Protic          1998-2000 [picture]

Velimir-Velja Ilic +            [picture] 

Milan Protic       +            [picture]

Mihajlo Markovic      2000-2001 [picture] 

Velimir-Velja Ilic +            [picture] 

Mihajlo Markovic      2001      [picture] 

Velimir-Velja Ilic    2001-     [picture] 

 

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 Presidents of SD

Vuk Obradovic         1997-2001 [picture] 

Meho Omerovic       +

Slobodan Lalovic    +

Natasa Milojevic    +           [picture]

Ljiljana Nestorovic   2001      [picture] (acting)        

Slobodan Orlic        2001-2002 [picture] (acting)

Vuk Obradovic         2002-     [picture] 

 

Prt of SD merged with SDU to form the new SDP on 21 Apr 2002. The loyalists of Vuk Obradovic continue the single party.

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President of DSHV

Bela Tonkovic       1990-       [picture]

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President of SDAS

Sulejman Ugljanin   1990-

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Presidents of DZVM

András Agoston   1990-1996

Sándor Pal       1996-     [picture]

DZVM was founded on 31 Mar 1990.

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President of DC

Dragoljub Micunovic   1996-      [picture]

DC was founded in Feb 1996.

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President of SDU (1997-2002)

Zarko Korac   1997-2002 [picture]

SDU merged with SD to form the new SDP on 21 Apr 2002.

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President of SSDP

Zoran Lilic   2000-     [picture]

SSDP was founded by splinters of SPS on 16 Nov 2000.

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President of SDP

Rasim Ljajic  1997-     [picture]

SDP was founded in 1997 by splinters of SDAS.

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Co-chairmen of SDP

Zarko Korac    +            [picture]

Slobodan Orlic    2002-     [picture]

SDP was born on 21 Apr 2002 as the merger SDU and part of SD and a DOS member.

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  Republic of Montenegro

Montenegrin Governments since 1991 

 Presidents 

Momir Bulatovic   29 Dec 1990-15 Jan 1998 [picture] DPS

Milo Djukanovic   15 Jan 1998-            [picture] DPS

 

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 Prime ministers 

Milo Djukanovic   16 Jan 1991- 5 Feb 1998 [picture] DPS

Filip Vujanovic    5 Feb 1998-            [picture] DPS

 

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 Foreign Ministers 

Nikola Samardzic  1991-1992                DPS

Miodrag Lekic     1992-1995                DPS

Janko Jeknic      1995-1997 (+)k           DPS  

Branko Perovic    1997-2000      [picture] DPS

Branko Lukovac    2000-          [picture] n-p

 

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 Interior Ministers 

Pavle Bulatovic   1991-1992 (+2000)a [picture]

Nikola Pejakovic  1992-1994

Filip Vujanovic   1994-1997          [picture]

Vukasin Maras     1997-              [picture]     

 

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 Ministers of Defence 

Bozidar Babic     1991-1993

Milo Djukanovic   1993      [picture]

 

Ministry abolished in 1993.

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 Speakers of the People's Assembly 

Risto Vukcevic    1990-1994

Svetozar Marovic  1994-2001 [picture]

Vesna Perovic     2001-     [picture]

 

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 Presidents of DPS 

Momir Bulatovic           1990-1997 [picture]

Milica Pejanovic-Djurisic 1997-1998 [picture]

Milo Djukanovic           1998-     [picture]

 

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President of SNPCG

Momir Bulatovic   1997-2001 [picture]

Predrag Bulatovic 2001-     [picture]

Momir Bulatovic created the pro-Serbian SNPCG on 21 Mar 1998 while the DPS remained controlled by Milo Djukanovic.

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President of NSCG

Novak Kilibarda   1990-2000 [picture]

Dragan Soc        2000-     [picture]

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 Presidents of LSCG 

Slavko Perovic    1990-1999 [picture]

Miodrag Zivkovic  1999-     [picture]

 

LSCG was founded on 26 Jan 1990.

Grande guerra de 1914-1918. Em 20 de Julho de 1917 surgira a declaração de Corfu, publicada conjuntamente por um comité jugoslavo no exílio e pelo governo sérvio refugiado, onde se prevê a congregação dos eslavos do sul, sob a direcção da Sérvia, numa monarquia constitucional. Em 23 de Novembro de 1918, em Zagreb, um congresso nacional institui o reino dos Sérvios, Croatas e Eslovenos que, a partir de 3 de Outubro de 1929, passa a designar-se por Jugoslávia; foi então designado rei Pedro I, mas devido à sua idade, Alexandre foi proclamado imediatamente como regente; será rei, Alexandre I, entre 1921 e 1934. As fronteiras do novo Estado, então com quase 14 milhões de habitantes e 248 494 quilómetros quadrados, são fixadas pelos Tratados de Neuilly (27 de Novembro de 1919), Saint-Germain (10 de Setembro de 1919) e Trianon (4 de Junho de 1920); no novo Estado aparecem cerca de 15% de minorias não eslavas, como albaneses, húngaros, alemães e romenos; a nova bandeira reunia as corez azul da Sérvia, branca, da Croácia, e vermelha, da Eslovénia. A partir de 1929 surge uma ditadura marcada pelo centralismo, contra a reacção dos croatas, liderados pelos ustachis dirigidos por Ante Pavelic; em 9 de Outubro de 1934 o rei era asassinado em Marselha pelos nacionalistas croatas.

Em 25 de Março de 1941 a Jugoslávia aderiu ao pacto tripartido; dois dias depois, surge um golpe militar anti-alemão; em 6 de Abril, a Alemanha invade a Jugoslávia; a Croácia passa a Estado independente e recebe parte da Bósnia; a Itália anexa a Eslovénia e a Dalmácia; a Bulgária ocupa grande parte da Macedónia; a Hungria recebe parte da Voivodina. Surge uma resistência anti-alemã: de um lado, os chetniks dirigidos pelo coronel sérvio Mihaílovitch; do outro os comunistas,  os partisans, dirigidos pelo croata Josip Broz, Tito; tanto os soviéticos como os restantes aliados apoiam estes últimos que conseguem instaurar uma organização administrativa; em Novembro de 1942, os titistas criam um comité antifascista de libertação nacional e em 1943, um governo provisório; em Outubro de 1944, as tropas soviéticas entram na Jugoslávia. Nas eleições de 11 de Novembro de 1945 surge uma lista única liderada pelos comunistas, a chamada Frente Nacional que consegue 90% dos votos.

 

Em 31 de Janeiro de 1946 estabelece-se uma nova constituição que faz da Jugoslávia uma federação de seis repúblicas (Sérvia, Croácia, Eslovénia, Bósnia-Herzegovina, Montenegro e Macedónia); o coronel Mihailovitch é executado em 17 de Julho de 1946.