Roménia (România)

 

Executive: l

President: Ion Iliescu (2001) PDSR

Prime minister: Adrian Nastase (2001) PDSR

26 Dec 1989 - 29 Nov 1996  Ion Iliescu (1st time)             (b. 1930)

                           (president of the Council of the National Salvation Front

                           to 13 Feb 1990; president of the Provisional National

                           Unity Council 13 Feb - 20 Jun 1990)

29 Nov 1996 - 20 Dec 2000  Emil Constantinescu                (b. 1939)

20 Dec 2000 -              Ion Iliescu (2nd time)             (s.a.)

Prime ministers

26 Dec 1989 -  1 Oct 1991  Petre Roman                        (b. 1946)

                           (interim to 20 Jun 1990)

 1 Oct 1991 -  4 Nov 1992  Theodor Stolojan                   (b. 1943)

 4 Nov 1992 - 12 Dec 1996  Nicolae Vacaroiu                   (b. 1943)

12 Dec 1996 - 30 Mar 1998  Victor Ciorbea                     (b. 1954)

30 Mar 1998 - 15 Apr 1998  Gavril Dejeu (interim)             (b. 1932)

15 Apr 1998 - 14 Dec 1999  Radu Vasile                        (b. 1942)

14 Dec 1999 - 22 Dec 1999  Alexandru Athanasiu (interim)      (b. 1955)

22 Dec 1999 - 28 Dec 2000  Mugur Isarescu                     (b. 1949)

28 Dec 2000 -              Adrian Nastase                     (b. 1950)

REPUBLIC OF ROMANIA

PRESIDENTIAL ELECTIONS OF NOVEMBER AND DECEMBER 2000

===================================================================

NATIONAL SUMMARY

===================================================================

FIRST ROUND, 26 NOVEMBER 2000

===================================================================

Graziela-Elena Birla                         61,306   00.5

Niculae Cerveni                              31,871   00.3

Gyorgy Frunda               UDMR            693,879   06.2

Paul-Philippe Hohenzollern                   55,063   00.5

Ion Ilescu                  PDSR          4,076,273   36.3

Constantin M Isarescu       PNTCD         1,069,463   09.5

Gheorghe E Manole                           133,791   01.2

Teodor V Melescanu                          214,013   01.9

Petre Roman                 PD              333,507   03.0

Ion Sasu                                     38,339   00.3

Theodor D Stolojan          PNL           1,321,420   11.8

Corneliu Vadim Tudor        PRM           3,178,293   28.3

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                                         11,212,974

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SECOND ROUND, 10 DECEMBER 2000

===================================================================

Ion ILESCU                  PDSR          6,696,623   66.8

Corneliu Vadim Tudor        PRM           3,324,247   33.2

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                                         10,022,870

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Parties

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* PD (Partidul Democrat) Democratic Party

* PDSR (Polul Democrat-Social din Romania) Social Democratic

  Pole of Romania (a three-party coalition dominated by the Social

  Democratic Party of Romania)

* PNL (Partidul National Liberal) National Liberal Party

* PNTCD (Partidul National Taranesc Crestin Democrat) National

  Christian Democratic Farmers' Party

* PRM (Partidul Romania Mare) Party of Great Romania

* UDMR (Uniunea Democratica Maghiara din Romania (Hungarian

  Democratic Alliance of Romania)

REPUBLIC OF ROMANIA

PARLIAMENTARY ELECTIONS OF 26 NOVEMBER 2000

===================================================================

These statistics come from the websites of the Romanian Parliament

and of the Romanian Social Democratic Party. Neither website gives

complete figures, and those they do give differ somewhat. I have

used them in combination to give the most complete figures

possible. The figures are nevertheless incomplete and may not be

entirely accurate.

Parties

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* APR (Alianta Pentru Romania) Alliance For Romania

* CDR (Conventia Democratic Romana 2000) Democratic Convention of

  Romania 2000

* PAN (Partidul Alianta Nationala (National Alliance Party)

* PD (Partidul Democrat) Democratic Party

* PDSR (Polul Democrat-Social din Romania) Social Democratic

  Pole of Romania (a three-party coalition dominated by the Social

  Democratic Party of Romania)

* PNL (Partidul National Liberal) National Liberal Party

* PNLC (Partidul National Liberal-Campeanu) National Liberal Party

  (Campeanu faction)

* PNTCD (Partidul National Taranesc Crestin Democrat) National

  Christian Democratic Farmers' Party

* PRM (Partidul Romania Mare) Party of Great Romania

* UDMR (Uniunea Democratica Maghiara din Romania (Hungarian

  Democratic Alliance of Romania)

NATIONAL SUMMARY

===================================================================

Votes and seats are compared with the Parliamentary elections of

November 1996

CHAMBER OF DEPUTIES

===================================================================

Party           Votes       %      Change     Seats    Change

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APR               440,535   04.1                -

CDR               538,262   05.0   -25.2        -      -122

PAN               148,961   01.4                -

PD                762,365   07.0               31

PDSR            3,968,464   36.6   +15.1      155      + 64

PNL               747,263   06.9               30

PNLC              150,356   01.4                -

PRM             2,112,027   19.5   +15.1       84      + 65

UDMR              736,863   06.8   +00.2       27      +  2

Others            137,355   01.3                -

Minorities                                     18      +  3

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                9,742,451                     345

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Eighteen seats were allocated to representatives of ethnic

communities.

: (56.5 and 50.4 %)   

Presidente

26-11 e 10-12-2000

%

Ion Iliescu

Partidul Democratiei Sociale din România

36.4 

66.8 

Corneliu Vadim Tudor

Partidul România Mare

28.3 

33.2 

Theodor Dumitru Stolojan

Partidul National Liberal

11.8

 

Constantin Mugur Isarescu

Partidul National Taranesc Crestin Democrat

9.5

 

György Frunda

Uniunea Democratica Maghiara din România

6.2 

 

Petre Roman

Partidul Democrat

3.0 

 

 

 

Camera Deputatilor

26 november 2000

%

346

Polul Democrat-Social din România

PDSR Pólo dos Democratas-Sociais da Roménia (PDSR+PSDR), a que se juntaram o PUR e o PSD

36.6

142

Partidul Democratiei Sociale din România

PDSR

 

 

Partidul Social Democrat Român

PSDR

 

 

Partidul Umanist din România

PUR

 

Partidul Social Democrat

PSD

 

7

Partidul România Mare

PRM Partido da Grande Roménia

19.5 

84 

Partidul Democrat

PD

7.0 

31

Partidul National Liberal 

PNL 

6.9 

30 

Romániai Magyar Demokrata Szövetseg

UDMR

6.8 

27 

 

 (Democratic Social Pole of Romania)

- (Democratic Social Party of Romania, authoritharian extreme left)

- (Romanian Social Democratic Party, social-democratic)

- (Humanist Party of Romania)

(and merged into (Social Democratic Party)      PDSR

PSDR

PUR

 (Party of Great Romania, xenophobic)   

 (Democratic Party, social-democratic)     

 (National Liberal Party, liberal)

(ApR merged into PNL) 

Uniunea Democratica Maghiara din România/

 (Hungarian Democratic Alliance of Romania, Hungarian minority)   

Conventia Democrata Româna 2000 (Democratic Convention of Romania 2000)

- Partidul National Taranesc Crestin Democrat (National Farmers' Party-Christian and Democratic, christian-democratic)

- Uniunea Fortelor de Dreapta (Union of Right-Wing Forces, conservative)

- Alianta Nationala Crestin Democrata (Christian-Democratic National Alliance)

- Federatia Ecologista din România (Ecologist Federation of Romania)

- (Moldovan Party)  2000  - 

 (Alliance for Romania)

(ApR merged into the PNL in 2002)  ApR  4.1  - 

General Secretary

Nicolae Andruta Ceausescu  22 Mar 1965-25 Dec 1989 (+)e    [picture2] 

(*) Called Romanian Workers' Party (PMR) Feb 1948-Jul 1965. The PCR was declared illegal on 12 Jan 1990.

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 Leaders of FSN / FDSN / PDSR / PSD (*) 

Chairmen

Ion Iliescu      1997-2000 [picture] 

Adrian Nãstase   2001-     [picture] 

Executive chairman

Adrian Nãstase   1993-1997 [picture]  

 

(*) The National Salvation Front that came to power on 22 Dec 1989 constitued itself as a party on 6 Feb 1990. On 7 Apr 1992 the pro-Iliescu wing split off and formed the FDSN. On 10 Jul 1993 FDSN, Socialist Democratic Party of Romania (PDSR), Republican Party (PR) and Cooperative Party merged to form the PDSR. On 16 Jun 2001 the PDSR merged with the PSDR to form the PSD.

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 Leaders of PNTCD 

Chairmen

Corneliu Coposu         1989-1995 (+) [picture] 

Ion Diaconescu          1996-2000     [picture] 

Coordinator chairman of the Transition Leadership Bureau

Constantin Dudu Ionescu 2000-2001     [picture] 

Chairmen

Andrei Marga            2001          [picture] 

Victor Ciorbea          2001-         [picture] 

 

The historical PNT was founded in 1926 from the merger of the National (PNR) and Peasant (PT) parties. Disbanded by the Communists on 29 Jul 1947, was restablished on 26 Dec 1989 and registered in Jan 1990 as PNTCD.

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 Chairmen of PNL 

Radu Campeanu           1990-1993 [picture] 

Mircea Ionescu-Quintus  1993-2001 [picture]  

Valeriu Stoica          2001-     [picture] 

 

The historical PNL (founded 1875) was disbanded by the Communists in 1947 and registered again on 6 Jan 1990. In the period 1992-93 the PNL suffered three major splits that subsequently became parties: a) Liberal Party '93 (PL'93), b) PNL-Democratic Convention (PNL-CD) and c) PNL-Campeanu (PNL-C).

a) PL'93 (chair, Horia Mircea Rusu, +2001) became the Liberal Party (PL) in 1997 (see below). Some early dissidents constitued themselves in Mar 1995 as the Liberal Political Group merged into the PNL on 13 May 1995.

b) PNL-CD (chair, Nicolae Cerveni) appeared in Apr 1992. On 14 Jun 1997 merged with PL'93 to form the referred PL (chair, Nicolae Cerveni), which caused (Mar 1997) an split led by dissident Alexandru Popovici.

c) PNL-C (chair, Radu Campeanu) joined to PL to set up a Liberal Federation (FL) on 6 Mar 1998.

PL finally merged into the PNL on 4 Jul 1999, shortly after suffering an split led by Cerveni, who remained as leader of FL, then named Liberal Democratic Party (PLD, see PNR for future development). Last PL leader was Dinu Patriciu. PNL was a member of CDR up to Aug 2000.

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 Chairman of PD 

Petre Roman     1993-2001 [picture] 

Traian Basescu  2001-     [picture] 

 

On 28-29 May 1993 the pro-Roman wing within the FSN merged with the Democratic Party (PD), the Democratic Party of Labour (PDM), the Traditional Social Democratic Party (PSDT), the Romanian Democratic Front (FDR) and the Social Democratic Unity Party (PUSD) to form the Democratic Party-National Salvation Front (PD-FSN), then known simply as PD. On 27 Sep 1995 PD-FSN and PSDR (see below) formed the electoral alliance Social Democratic Union (USD).

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 Chairman of UDMR/RMDSZ 

Géza Domokos  1989-1993

Béla Markó    1993-     [picture] 

 

UDMR/RMDSZ was founded on 25 Dec 1989.

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 Leaders of PUNR 

Chairmen

Radu Ceontea     1990-1992 [picture] 

Gheorghe Funar   1992-1997 [picture] 

Valeriu Tabara   1997-2000 [picture]  

Head of the provisional Commission

Valeriu Tabara   2001-     [picture] 

 

PUNR began in Apr 1990 as Romanian National Unity Party of Transylvania (PUNRT); in 1991 became a national party an changed its name to PUNR. Funar was ousted as chairman on 22 Feb 1997 and expelled from the party on 4 Nov 1997. On 25 Apr 1998 launched his own force, the Party of Romanian Unity Alliance (PAUR), which left on 16 Nov 1998 to join PRM as its general secretary. The PAUR, reduced to those who didn't follow Funar, merged into PDSR on 29 May 1999. On 9 Aug 2000 PUNR merged with PNR to form AN, but on 4 Feb 2001 some leaders just withdrawn from the new party decided to register PUNR again. The PUNR actually gained its previous single status when the AN was disbanded on 23 Jun 2001.

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 Chairman of PRM 

Corneliu Vadim Tudor  1991-     [picture]  

 

PRM was founded on 20 Jun 1991.

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 Chairmen of PAR/UFD 

Varujan Vosganian                     1996-1999 [picture] 

Varujan Vosganian + Adrian Iorgulescu 1999-2001

Adrian Iorgulescu                     2001-     [picture] 

 

PAR was founded in 1996 and changed its name to UFD on 28 Mar 1999. UFD is an original member of the CDR 2000 coalition, launched in Aug 2000.

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 Chairman of PS 

Ilie Cioaca  1995-

 

PS was founded on 1 Mar 1995 by splinters of PSM.

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Chairman of PSM

Ilie Verdet   1990-2000 (+2001) [picture]

Ion Sasu      2000-

PSM was founded on 16 Nov 1990.

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 Chairmen of CDR and CDR 2000 (1991-2000) 

Emil Ion Constantinescu  1992-1996 [picture] 

Ion Diaconescu           1996-2000 [picture] 

 

CDR was set up in 1991 as an alliance of about 20 political parties and non-party organizations to oppose the ruling FSN. Major members have been PNTCD, PNL (out Apr 1992-Dec 1995), PNL-CD, PAR (quitted 27 Oct 1998), Romanian Ecologist Movement (MER) and Romanian Ecologist Federation (FER). PSDR, PL'93 and PAC quitted in Mar 1995, while UDMR was ousted as a member in Feb 1995. By early 2000 CDR was comprised by PNTCD, PNL, FER and the Romanian Ecologist Party (PER). On 31 Aug 2000 PNTCD, UFD, ANCD, FER and the Party of Moldavians set up a new alliance called CDR 2000.

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 Chairmen of PSDR (1989-2001) 

Sergiu Cunescu       1990-1999 [picture] 

Alexandru Athanasiu  1999-2001 [picture]  

 

The historical PSDR was founded in 1893, banned in 1948, restablished in Dec 1989 and registered on 17 Jan 1990. On 16 Jun 2001 the party merged with the PDSR to form the PSD.

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Chairman of PAC (1991-1998)

Nicolae Manolescu   1991-1998 [picture] 

PAC was founded on 1 Aug 1991 and merged into the PNL on 28 Feb 1998.

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 Chairman of ApR (1997-2002) 

Teodor Viorel Melescanu   1997-2002 [picture] 

 

ApR was registered by splinters of PDSR on 11 Aug 1997. On 19 Jan 2002 merged with the PNL

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 Chairman of ANCD (1999-2001) 

Victor Ciorbea   1999-2001 [picture] 

 

ANCD was founded by splinters of PNTCD on 17 Apr 1999. In Aug 2000 was an original member of the new CDR 2000 alliance. On 6 Jun 2001 the party rejoined the PNTCD and ceased to exist.

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Leaders of PNR (1998-2000)

Chairmen

Mihai Berca       1998-1999

Viorel Catarama   1999      [picture]  

Virgil Magureanu  1999-2000

General Secretaties

Virgil Magureanu   1998-1999

Mircea Cranta      1999-2000

PNR was born on 14 Mar 1998 from the merger of two parties: the Romanian Democratic Agrarian Party (PDAR, chairmen Victor Surdu 1990-97 and Mihai Berca 1997-98) and the New Romania Party (PNR, chair Ovidiu Traznea). The Liberal Christian Party (PLC) joined shortly after that year and on 29 May 1999 the PLD (see above for past developments) also merged into. On 9 Aug 2000 PNR merged with PUNR to form the AN. On 23 Jun 2001 the AN decided the absorption by the PD, excluding the previous ranks from PUNR.

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 Chairman of AN (2000-2001) 

Valeriu Tabara   2000-2001 [picture]   

Partis. Coalition gouvernementale : Union sociale-démocrate (usd) nom pris le 29-5-1993 par le Front du salut national (fsn) fondé déc. 1989. Pt : Petre Roman. P. social-démocrate roumain (psdr) fondé 1893. Pt : Sergiu Cunescu (né 1923). Convention démocrate de R. (cdr) : Pt : Ion Diaconescu. Alliance de 15 partis et organisations formée 1992 dont P. national libéral (pnl) fondé 1875. Pt : Mircea Ionescu-Quintus (né 20-3-1915). P. national paysan, chrétien démocrate (pntcd) : fusion en 1990 du P. paysan fondé 1918 par Ion Mihalache (1882-1965) et du P. national roumain de Transylvanie par Iuliu Maniu (1873/3-2-1953 en prison). Fondé 1926. Pt : Ion Diaconescu. P. l'Alternative de la R. (par) fondé 1995. Pt : Varujan Vosganian. Union démocratique des Magyars de R. (udmr) : fondée 1870. Pt : Marko Bela. Opposition : P. de la Démocratie sociale de R. (pdsr) ancien Front démocratique du salut nat. (fdsn), fondé 1991. Pt : Corneliu Vadim Tudor. P. de l'Unité nationale roumaine (punr) fondé 1990. Pt : Valeriu Tabara.

Superf. 238 milliers de km2  Pop. 22 millions  PNB 33 mds de dollars (1999) PNB/hab. 1 470  ollars (1999) Croiss. -3,2 % (1998-1999) Budg. éduc. 3,6 % du PNB Serv. dette 31,3 % des  xportations Mort. inf. 20 pour mille naissances Esp. vie 69 ans IDH 58e rang mondial sur 162 ays IPF 48e rang mondial sur 64 pays Budg. déf. 1 000 millions de dollars (2001) Armée 103 000 actifs et 470 000 réservistes

237 500 km2 e 23 100 000 de habitantes. 20, 5 % de minorias (4 300 000 pessoas), com 2 000 000 de húngaros, outros tantos ciganos, bem como 150 000 alemães e 200 000 eslavos, principalmente sérvios e ruténios. Os principados da Valáquia e da Moldávia passaram no século XV para a suserania otomana; por ocasião da revolta grega de 1821-1829, os principados romenos revoltam-se contra os gregos; Culzaa partir da paz de Andrinopla de 1829, tornam-se protectorados russos, dentro do império otomano, assim se mantendo até ao Tratado de Paris de 1856 que pôs fim à Guerra da Crimeia. Entre 1856 e 1859, a Valáquia e a Moldávia ficaram como protectorado comum das potências signatárias do Tratado de Paris; segundo os termos do tratado, cada uma delas elegeria um hospdar por sufrágio universal, que seria investido pelo sultão; contudo, face às pressões da França e da Rússia, os moldavos e os valáquios acabaram por eleger um hospdar comum, o coronel Culza, surgindo em 1859, uma união de facto. Em 23 de Dezembro de 1861 o sultão da Turquia acede à unificação da Moldávia e da Valáquia sob a denominação de Roménia; em 1862,  as potências já reconheciam Culza como príncipe da Roménia que, no entanto, ainda continuava vassalo do sultão; em 1866, depois de um golpe de Estado que evitou que Culza se tornasse um rei absoluto, foi eleito príncipe um alemão da família Hohenzollern, Carol, que se assumiu como hereditário, reduzindo-se deste modo o direito de investidura que ainda cabia ao sultão; em 10 de Maio  de 1877 obtém a plena independência, reconhecida pelo tratado de Berlim de 1878; transformou-se em reino em 1881. A Roménia, tendo apoiado a causa aliada, beneficiou dos tratados de paz que regularam o desmantelamento dos impérios turco e austro-húngaro e a derrota búlgara, anexando a Transilvânia e a Bucovina, ex-territórios húngaros, e a Dobruja, ex-território búlgaro, que acesceram à Bessarábia, que obteve da Rússia em 1918; assim aumentou o seu território de 130 000 km2 para 295 000 km2, mas um quarto da população passou a não ser romena. Depois do Pacto germano-soviético de 1939, a URSS retirou-lhe a Bessarábia e a Bucovina; em 1940, depois da derrota francesa, a Hungria apoderou-se da Transilvânia; em 1941, a Roménia entra na guerra ao lado dos alemães, contra a URSS; em 1944, o exército vermelho invade a Roménia e o rei Miguel muda de campo, declara guerra à Alemanha e recupera a Transilvânia em 1945.

Logo em 6 de Março de 1945, surgiu um governo comunista sob a direcção de Petru Groza, a que se seguiram a prisão do Presidente do Partido Nacional Camponês, Maniu, em 25 de Julho de 1947, e a abdicação do Rei Miguel, em 30 de Dezembro seguinte. Em Fevereiro de 1948, surge o Partido dos Trabalhadores da Roménia, pela fusão de comunistas e sociais-democratas, e, no mês seguinte, em 28 de Março, a Frente Democrática, dominada pelos comunistas ganha as eleições. Em Abril já é proclamada a República Popular, sob a direcção de Groza. Não tarda que seja negado o direito de voto aos inimigos do comunismo, em 2 de Setembro de 1950. Entretanto, sucedem-se várias depurações. Em 1948, a de Patrascanu, acusado de nacionalismo; em 1952, a de Vasile Luca, Ministro das Finanças, e a de Anna Pauker, a Pasionaria romena, Ministro dos Negócios Estrangeiros, acusada de cosmopolitismo. Neste mesmo ano, Groza é substituído por Gheorgiu Dej. É a este Dej que vai suceder, em 1965, Nicolau Ceausescu que retoma as linhas do antecessor o qual, em 1962, se opusera aos modelos de desestalinização estabelecidos por Moscovo, passando a falar num comunismo nacional. Em 1947 o Partido Operário da Roménia apoiado pelos soviéticos proclama a República Popular da Roménia

Em 1965, o partido único, rebaptizado como Partido Comunista da Roménia, passa a ser dirigido por Nicolau Ceausescu que, em 1967, já é presidente do Conselho de Estado; em 1974, Ceausescu, o conducator já é presidente da República, assumindo uma política nacional-comunista, marcada por uma grande hostilidade relativamente às minorias étnicas, praticando nomeadamente a sistematização do território pela destruição das localidades tradicionais, integrando-as em novos aglomerados, onde pretendia construir-se um homem novo.

 

Em 1989, depois da revolta dos húngaros de Timisoara, na Transilvânia, dá-se o derrube sangrento do ditador, assumindo o poder uma Frente de Salvação Nacional, dirigida por Ion Iliescu e constituída pelos antigos comunistas; este grupo ganha as eleições de Maio de 1990; o partido dominante, aliado aos nacionalistas do Partido da Unidade Nacional Romena e do Partido da Grande Roménia tem contra ele a Convenção Democrática, formada em 1991 por todos os partidos da oposição, o Partido Nacional Camponês, o Partido Liberal, o Partido Social Democrata e a União Democrática dos Húngaros da Roménia. Os ciganos, considerados apenas 100 000 pelos departamentos oficiais, contra os 4 000 000 reivindicados pelo Partido Nacional dos Ciganos da Roménia, devem rondar os 2 000 000; os húngaros, também 2 000 000 constituem 25% da população da Transilvânia.